Multiculturalism: its problems and teaching
Modern sociocultural, political, and economic processes are predominantly shaped by globalization. Globalization has created large-scale emigration flows around the world, processes of integration and assimilation of various groups and ethnicities, actualizing the phenomenon of multiculturalism. Modern multiculturalism has its positive and negative consequences. Western multiculturalism is based on the principles of radical liberalism, which favors individual rights over collective rights. Meanwhile, it is obvious that today we should talk about universal rights, inherent to both individuals and groups and collectives of individuals, nations, peoples. A selective approach to relations of inequality between different groups in society is necessary, since some of them are insurmountable and hardly require a change in such a situation. Multiculturalism is just entering its maturity, and much remains to be done for this policy to succeed.
The state, which pursues a policy of multiculturalism, must propagate the ideas of tolerance in society and enshrine them in law. Effective multiculturalism presupposes unity and coherence of state policy, practice and ideology. It is necessary to recognize the necessity of forming conditions conducive to the development of positive forms of multiculturalism. Among them we would like to mention a well-considered policy of the state, which defines the norms of multiculturalism. These norms must find their place in the process of learning and teaching at different levels.
In some post-Soviet countries (e.g. Azerbaijan) multiculturalism must spread among the various ethical groups, the peoples traditionally living in the country. With this approach, multiculturalism policy should aim to consolidate all ethnic groups into a single society with shared values and ideals, and recognize the rights of these groups to cultural and ethno-confessional autonomy.
There is a need to include multiculturalism as a separate and mandatory subject in higher education courses.
Multiperspectivity should be directly related to multiculturalism due to the commonality of the methodological and philosophical platform, many concepts and definitions. Multiculturalism and the multiperspectivity method should be used not only in teaching humanities disciplines, but also introduced in the methodological analysis of scientific research.
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